Prenatal & Postpartum, Women Health & Fitness

The Science of Prenatal Exercise: Nurturing Both Mom and Baby

Expecting mothers are often awash with advice on what they should and shouldn’t do to ensure a healthy pregnancy. One topic that arises frequently is exercise. While historically there has been caution around this subject, growing scientific evidence supports the idea that exercise during pregnancy benefits both the mother and the developing baby. Let’s delve into the scientific foundations of these benefits and learn how fitness professionals can create safe and effective workout routines for expectant mothers.


Understanding Exercise During Pregnancy

The human body is a marvel of adaptability, and pregnancy showcases this adaptability in many ways. Exercise during pregnancy has been found to have numerous health benefits for both the mother and baby, provided it is performed safely and under the guidance of a health professional (Barakat, Perales, Garatachea, Ruiz, & Lucia, 2015).


The Science Backing Prenatal Exercise

Numerous studies indicate that prenatal exercise can improve the mother’s cardiovascular function, limit excessive weight gain, reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia, and enhance overall mental well-being (Mottola et al., 2018).

Moreover, exercise has been found to benefit the developing baby. A 2019 study demonstrated that moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy improves the newborn’s cardiac autonomic control, which is critical for heart function (May, Suminski, Langaker, Yeh, & Gustafson, 2019).


Creating Safe and Effective Workout Routines

Designing workout routines for pregnant women requires an understanding of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. There are also certain precautions to consider to avoid potential risks.

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), pregnant women should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week (ACOG, 2020). This can be divided into smaller sessions spread throughout the week. It’s important to incorporate exercises that improve cardiovascular fitness, such as walking or swimming, along with strength training exercises that target the major muscle groups.

Pregnant women are advised to avoid exercises that involve lying flat on their back after the first trimester, as this can decrease blood flow to the baby. High-contact sports or activities with a high risk of falling should also be avoided (ACOG, 2020).

A qualified fitness professional can tailor a workout routine to a pregnant woman’s fitness level and specific needs, making necessary adjustments as the pregnancy progresses.


In conclusion, the benefits of prenatal exercise, underpinned by solid scientific evidence, extend to both mother and baby. By understanding the changes occurring in a woman’s body during pregnancy, fitness professionals can design safe and effective workout routines, fostering health and well-being during this crucial period of life.




  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 135(4), e178-e188.
  2. Barakat, R., Perales, M., Garatachea, N., Ruiz, J. R., & Lucia, A. (2015). Exercise during pregnancy. A narrative review asking: what do we know?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(21), 1377-1381.
  3. May, L. E., Suminski, R. R., Langaker, M. D., Yeh, H. W., & Gustafson, K. M. (2019). Regular maternal exercise dose and fetal heart outcome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51(7), 1399-1406.
  4. Mottola, M. F., Davenport, M. H., Ruchat, S. M., Davies, G. A., Poitras, V. J., Gray, C. E., … & Barrowman, N. (2018). 2019 Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout pregnancy. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(21), 1339-1346.

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